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03-Oct-03 
Message from Publisher:
  This message is to announce that our staff will be taking a sabbatical from updating this What's Newsworthy Feature of our web site until further notice.  The staff are needed to work on another important project and we have not yet identified a volunteer editor who will step in and provide new content for this feature bimonthly (it's okay for faculty to volunteer their students and post-docs so they can practice their writing skills and ensure they keep up on their journal reading). The good news is that we will, however, continue to update the What's being patented and What's being published features as before.  We have enjoyed providing this feature and look forward to providing it again as soon as possible.  

Sincerely, 
Fred Lehle, Ph.D.
Chief Editor and Publisher

 

08-Aug-03
The Role of the AtGPAT1 Gene in Tapetum Differentiation and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis

National Research Council Canada
National Research Council Canada

Glycerolipid biosynthesis outside the plastidic compartments concerns membrane as well as storage lipid metabolism. The initial step is mediated by the membrane-bound enzyme, GPAT1 (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1). The GPAT1 gene family from Arabidopsis has been recently characterized by J Zou and associates at the National Research Council of Canada, Saskatoon.

In the August 03 issue of Plant Cell (vol 15: 1872-87), the above authors report the effect of the AtGPAT1 gene family on tapetum differentiation and pollen development. In order to study the role of this gene in gametophytic development, the authors expressed polypeptides encoded by this gene in a yeast lipid mutant and also disrupted one isoform of this gene. They observed that disruption of the GPAT1 gene adversely affected pollen development. Male fertility was restored upon introduction of the normal allele of this gene into the mutant. Restoration of pollen development by substitution of the mutant allele with its normal counterpart, confirmed that there is a strong correlation between GPAT1 and pollen development. From their microscopic studies, the authors concluded that the disrupted GPAT1 gene causes degeneration of the tapetum and structural modification of the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by reduced secretion. The authors also found that in the absence of an GPAT1 gene, pollination fails, signifying its importance on pollen performance. The composition of fatty acids changed considerably in the floral tissues and seeds. Interestingly, these changes were not reflected in seed oil content in a significant manner.

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Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology

08-Aug-03
The Arabidopsis ACR4 Gene Plays a Role in Cell Layer Organization during Ovule Integument and Sepal Margin Development

The mechanisms underlying the organization of cell layers in the development of plant organs are not fully understood. In order to gain insight into the progression of events that lead to differentiation of peripheral cell layers, GC Ingram and associates at the ICMB, the University of Edinburgh, cloned the ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 gene and studied its expression in fast dividing cells in various meristematic zones.

In the September, 03 issue of Development (vol 130:4249-58), the above authors report that they have characterized the ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 gene. Their study reveals that this gene encodes a functional kinase and that it is expressed in the L1 cell layer of most of the meristematic and organ primordial tissues such as the ovule integuments. Using insertional mutations, they were able to show that this gene regulates cellular organization of certain organ development such as sepal margins and the integument around the nucellar tissue. The abundant presence of the receptor kinase in anticlinal and the inner periclinal plasma membrane of 'exterior' cells indicates that the above gene plays a significant role in certain developmental process restricted to outer meristematic cell layers. Based on their findings, the authors propose that ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 organizes and maintains external cell layers in organs of vital importance by receiving and transmitting signals from adjoining L1 cell layers alone or possibly both from L1- and underlying layers of cells.

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08-Aug-03
CBL1, a Calcium Sensor That Differentially Regulates Salt, Drought, and Cold Responses in Arabidopsis

Home page of Dr. Sheng Luan
Dr. Sheng Luan

It is known for quite some time that calcium plays a significant role in signal transduction pathways. Calcium critically influences the expression of stress-related genes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying calcium function has not yet been worked out. It is believed that in the cytosol there are sensor molecules such as calcium binding proteins that recognize calcium changes within the cell. It is also known that there are calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein families that act as calcium sensors in plants.

In the August, 03 issue of Plant Cell (vol.15:1833-45), a team of scientists led by S. Luan at the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, UCB, report that CBL1, a member of the CBL family CBL1, is highly stress sensitive and is induced by multiple stress signals. An increase in the CBL1-encoded protein level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was found to modify the stress response pathways in these plants. The authors studies further revealed that this gene acted differently under different kinds of stress. For example, CBL1 positively regulates the drought-induced gene expression but negatively regulate the cold-responsive genes. Consistent with this, transgenics over-expressing CBL1 became more tolerant to salt and drought, while their susceptibility to freezing temperatures increased. Conversely, the cold tolerance capacity of cbl1 null mutants in Arabidopsis plants increased, while these mutants were more susceptible in the drought and saline environment. The authors concluded that depending upon the environment, CBL1 acts as a positive or a negative regulator of stress responses.

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Home page of Dr. John P. Helgeson
Dr. John P. Helgeson

08-Aug-03
Gene RB Cloned from Solanum Bulbocastanum Confers Broad Spectrum Resistance to Potato Late Blight

Phytophthora infestans causes late blight disease of potato. In certain years the damage is very severe. Fungicide treatment has thus far been the only solution to contain this ravaging disease in the USA and other developed countries. No potato cultivars in the USA are known to contain genes that confer resistance to late blight. The absence of a resistant potato variety prompted a research team led by J. Jiang and J.P. Helgeson at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (WUM) to survey a wide range of Solanum species, searching for genes that would protect the potato crop against this deadly disease. When laboratory tests revealed that S. bulbocastanum, a wild diploid potato species is highly resistant to all known races of P. infestans, they cloned the gene and designated it the RB gene. The effective and long-lasting resistance ability of this diploid species was also demonstrated in the field. 

In the July 18, 2003, online publication of PNAS, the 12-member team affiliated to USDA, UCD, UWM and two other institutions, report the cloning of the major resistance gene RB in S. bulbocastanum. The authors used a combination of techniques: a map-based method supported by a long-range (LR)-PCR strategy. Their study revealed a cluster of four resistance genes of the CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat) class. They were located within the genetically mapped RB region. Transgenics transformed with one of these four genes showed late blight resistance over a wide range of pathogen races. Thus, the above investigation yielded the cloned RB gene - a new resistance source for developing late blight resistant potato varieties. Another byproduct of this investigation has been the demonstration that LR-PCR method can be used to isolate genes that cannot be maintained in the bacterial artificial chromosome system.

 

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Sales Manager Messages                                                           archives
15 Mar 2011  Effective today, the price of our cat. no. TR-01 ArabiTray Heavy-Duty Stacking Box-Tray (limited autoclave tolerant fiberglass, i.e. no more than one autoclave cycle every 3 months) has changed.  The new price of TR-01 is $21.40 USD each.  Effective today, the price of our cat. no. TR-02 ArabiTray Heavy-Duty Stacking Box-Tray (highly autoclave tolerant fiberglass, ie. multiple autoclave cycles daily) has changed.  The new price of TR-02 is $27.81 USD. Volume discounts of 10% in quantities of more than 10 are available for both TR-01 and TR-02.

27 Sep 2010  Effective September 27, 2010,  LEHLE SEEDS has instituted a new Excepted Quantities Processing (EQP) fee of $15.00 USD for all Vac-In-Stuff (Silwet L-77) orders requiring air-transport and thus "Dangerous Goods in Excepted Quantities" Labeling for IATA compliance.

01 Jan 2010  Effective January 1, 2010, LEHLE SEEDS has instituted a new Customs Documentation Preparation (CDP) fee. The CDP fee will be a flat $35 and will be applied to all orders shipped to destinations outside the U.S. The change is necessary to correct a long-standing imbalance inherent in our "One World" product pricing policy. The imbalance arises because international orders require additional customs documentation not required of domestic orders. Hence, preparation of said customs documents incur significant internal staffing costs, which previously have not been properly accounted for.

14 Aug 2009  Effective today, a handling charge of $15 will be added to all seed orders totaling less than $25.

16 Mar 2008  Effective today, prices of ARASYSTEM components will be increased across the product line an average of 4.0% to reflect the continuing devaluation of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro.

28 Jan 2008  Effective today, the price of our cat. no. DA-10 OptiVISOR Binocular Magnifier was increased 6.1% due to an equivalent rise in the manufacturer's wholesale price.  Prices were also increased, for the same reason, in associated OptiVISER accessories including cat. no. LP-01 OptiLOUPE monocular lens (5.3%), cat. no. LT-06 Optivisor Clip-on Light Attachment (3.9%) and cat. no. LT-2204 Optivisor Clip-on Light Attachment Replacement Bulb (7.7%).

06 Nov 2007  Effective today, prices of ARASYSTEM components will be increased across the product line an average of 1.61% to reflect the continuing devaluation of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro.

24 Sep 2007  Effective today, prices of ARASYSTEM components will be increased across the product line an average of 3.41% to reflect the continuing devaluation of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro.

08 May 2007 Custom Project Price Guide - Fall 2007 

Pricing for custom project services for the Fall 2007 production cycle are shown in the following table.  Conducting custom seed mutations is a service which is not always available, e.g. during periods of understaffing.  See our Special Notice page for the current status of this service.

Destination of Project Products

USA

Foreign

Genome Classification

Service

Non-
Transgenic
Transgenic Non-
Transgenic
Transgenic
Custom EMS mutation for M1 seeds  $2,090 $2,290 $2,090 $2,590
Custom EMS mutation for M2 seeds¥ $2,140 $2,340 $2,140 $2,640
Custom M1 grow-out & selfing to M2, 12 flats (minimum)§ $2,900 $3,200 $2,900 $3,200
Total $5,040 $5,540 $5,040 $5,840
Fee covers mutation and M1 seed drying services.   A maximum of 1.5 grams of seeds are mutated per batch and then dried and shipped.  Includes chemical waste neutralization, treatment and disposal services.   Where applicable, includes extra fees associated with transgenic biologicals such as their 1) special handling, containment and disposal and 2) compliance with USDA APHIS regulations to obtain a project specific importation permit.  Shipping and any related costs are not included.  A $500 retainer is required to engage this service. Billing is monthly thereafter.

¥  Fee covers mutation and M1 seed stratification services.  A maximum of 1.5 grams of seeds are mutated per batch and stratified at 5 C in preparation of planting. Fees for actual planting and grow-out of M1 seeds are covered in following service.  Includes chemical waste neutralization, treatment and disposal services.  Where applicable, includes extra fees associated with transgenic biologicals such as their 1) special handling, containment and disposal and 2) compliance with any or all  USDA APHIS regulations to obtain a project specific importation permit.  Shipping and any related costs are not included.  A $500 retainer is required to engage this service. Billing is monthly thereafter.

§ Fee covers M1 seed sowing, growing, maintaining, selfing, harvesting, cleaning and packaging of M2 progeny seeds for 4-5 months.  This service is paired with and follows the Custom EMS mutation service for M2 (above).  M1 seed are planted to achieve a target stand of 1,100  M1 parents on each of a minimum of twelve 28 x 56 cm greenhouse flats.  Sowing rate is 0.06 grams per flat.  Add $242 or $267 for each additional flat for non-transgenic and transgenic seeds, respectively. Fee includes a stand count, embryo test for mutation frequency estimation and remote monitoring of project via images posted to our web site. Where applicable, includes extra fees associated with rendering harmless and disposing of transgenic biologicals or medium containing  their residues.  Shipping and any related costs are not included.  Billing is monthly.  

19 Feb 2007  Effective today, prices of ARASYSTEM components will be increased across the product line an average of 2.3% to reflect recent devaluation in the dollar.

Production Manager Messages                                                     archives
19 Apr 2007  Notice of Custom Project Schedule

The schedule for custom projects for the remainder of 2007 and the first half of 2008 have been finalized.  Custom projects requiring a grow-out of M2 seeds must be initiated either in the months of September 2007 or February 2008.  This scheduling is required so custom projects coincide with our regular growth room operations.  LEHLE SEEDS currently idles its growth rooms from June to August for insect control, equipment maintenance, cleaning and disinfection.  The time is also used for processing chemical waste and growth medium waste prior to disposal.  Important deadlines are summarized in the following two sections.

  Fall 2007 Custom Projects - Reservations now being accepted

15 Jul 2007 - Last day to submit application for importation permit for September 2007 custom projects where client is 1) outside the U.S.A. and seeds are 2) transgenic.

01 Sep 2007 - Last day to receive seeds for September 2007 custom projects.  Seeds received after this date will be scheduled for February 2008.

01 Sep 2007 - 30 Sep 2007 Dates when custom projects with M2 grow-out will be initiated.  Projects not initiated by 30 Sep 2007 will be scheduled for February 2008.

31 Jan 2008 (or earlier) - Fall 2007 custom project harvesting complete.

  Spring 2008 Custom Projects - Reservations now being accepted

15 Dec 2007 - Last day to submit application for importation permit for February 2008 custom projects where client is 1) outside the U.S.A. and seeds are 2) transgenic.

01 Feb 2008 - Last day to receive seeds for September 2007 custom projects.  Seeds received after this date will be scheduled for September 2008.

01 Feb 2008 - 29 Feb 2008 Dates when custom projects with M2 grow-out  will be initiated.  Projects not initiated by 29 Feb 2008 will be scheduled for Sep 2008.

30 Jun 2008 (or earlier) - Spring 2008 custom project harvesting complete.

        Additional information concerning custom projects

Space in our growing rooms is limited and projects are assigned to the available space on a first come, first serve basis.  Projects that involve the importation of transgenic seeds into the U.S. will require LEHLE SEEDS to obtain a special USDA APHIS importation permit.  The permit process is such that the application should be started in July 2007 for the September custom projects and in December 2007 for the February 2008 custom projects.  For September 2007 projects, seeds must be in our hands no later than September 1, 2007.  For February 2008 projects, seeds must be in our hands no later than February 1, 2008.  Transgenic as well as non-transgenic seeds can be submitted, but transgenic seeds can only be imported to the USA under a special USDA APHIS which LEHLE SEEDS will obtain for its foreign customers before importation.  Contact Fred Lehle, Ph.D. by email if you have additional questions or interest. 

            Custom projects involving no M1 grow-out

Custom projects with immediate return of air-dried M1 seeds will be conducted only during the months of September - October 2007 and February - March 2008.

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